Difficult questions (urban/rural, hectares)

Urban and rural areas

In some countries, the questionnaire requires you to write whether the person lives in an urban or rural area. The definition of an urban or rural area should match that you of the most recent DHS survey for your country. This is usually based on the classification used for the census.

Since you will probably be interviewing clients at their facility rather than in their homes, you may have to record whether the facility is in an urban or rural area.


In some countries, you need to know the number of hectares of agricultural land the respondent’s household owns. This can be a difficult thing for a respondent to answer, especially when the respondent doesn’t know what a ‘hectare’ is. You can therefore modify the way that you collect this information in a way that will work for your country. For example, you may use a local measure of area and then convert the answers to hectares. In India, it is common to use ‘bighas’ and ‘ropani’ to measure land area. You could record the respondent’s answers in these units and then convert the answers to hectares.

When entering the data in EpiInfo, you must enter the number of hectares. The analysis files assume that the number you’ve entered is hectares, so however you collect answers to this question, you must convert to hectares before entering the data.

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